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Michael J. Klarman, Why Massive Resistance, in Massive Resistance: Southern Opposition to the Second Reconstruction 21 (Clive Webb ed., Oxford Univ. Press 2005).

Abstract: This chapter assesses how the forces of massive resistance overwhelmed more liberal opinion on racial integration. It stresses that those white southerners who were opposed to the Brown decision were more politically committed than were those who accepted or supported it. It adds that die-hard segregationists used the apparatus of local and state government to destroy political dissent among the southern whites. It highlights the importance of legislative malapportionment, which provided disproportionate political power to rural districts where white racism was most virulent.