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Bent Flyvbjerg & Cass R. Sunstein, The Principle of the Malevolent Hiding Hand; or, the Planning Fallacy Writ Large, 83 Soc. Res. 979 (2016).

Abstract: The article discusses the principle of the malevolent hiding hand and the planning fallacy writ large. Particular focus is given on economist Albert O. Hirschman's ideas on social-scientific laws. Hirchman believes that social planners tend to be unrealistically optimistic, particularly in underdeveloped nations. He adds that their neglect of bad surprises is countered by a much happier surprise. He also believes that the hiding hand provides a spur and a remedy in the form of mechanism that makes the risk-averter take risks.