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Victor Madrigal-Borloz, The price that is paid: violence and discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity and poverty, in Research Handbook on Human Rights and Poverty (Martha F. Davis, Morten Kjaerum & Amanda Lyons eds., 2021)

Abstract: This chapter examines the marginalization and social exclusion based on sexual orientation and gender identity and its connected impact on violence and discrimination, with particular focus on the sectors of health, education, employment and economic opportunities, housing, adequate standards of living, and violence. I begin by providing a meta-analysis of previously conducted scientific data collection efforts, noting the shortcomings of the evidence available. I proceed to propose several theoretical explanations for the linkages between stigma and poverty. Finally, I conclude with my thoughts on how States ought to take legislative, administrative or judicial action