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Lawrence Lessig, The First Amendment Does Not Protect Replicants, in Social Media and Democracy (Lee Bollinger & Geoffrey Stone, eds., forthcoming 2022) (Harvard Pub. L. Working Paper No. 21-34).

Abstract: As the semantic capability of computer systems increases, the law should resolve clearly whether the First Amendment protects machine speech. This essay argues it should not be read to reach sufficiently sophisticated — "replicant" — speech.