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Daniel K. Tarullo, The Federal Reserve and the Constitution, 97 S. Cal. L. Rev. 1 (2024).

Abstract: In a number of important cases restricting the authority and independence of federal agencies, the Supreme Court’s conservative majority has adopted reasoning that, if applied consistently, could have more far-reaching consequences for the administrative state. To explore the limits of the Court’s evolving doctrines, this Article shows how their application might lead to a conclusion that the structure or mandate of the Federal Reserve, as created by Congress, is unconstitutional. On the assumption that at least some of the conservative Justices would not want to reach this result, the Article goes on to survey strategies available to the Court for avoiding such an outcome. It explains how, if a constitutional challenge to the Federal Reserve were to reach the Court, its choice among these strategies would further delineate the reach of its campaign against the administrative state. Even in the absence of an actual challenge, this exercise reveals how the Court’s political philosophy is shaping its jurisprudence.