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Michael Waibel & William Alford, Technology Transfer, in 9 The Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law 801 (Rüdiger Wolfrum ed., 2012).

Abstract: Technology transfer concerns the efficient and equitable allocation of existing technology in the world. Such a transfer differs from the creation of new technology, even though it may enable further technological developments. The term technology transfer entered international law in the 1960s, though its precise definition remains contentious. Technology transfer has two dimensions. The first is technology as a catalyst for economic development. Technology transfer is widely believed to lead to higher economic growth. In the 1970s and 1980s, dependence theory — the view that integration into the world economy on capitalist terms would gradually worsen the balance of trade for developing countries — had many followers. This model of development emphasized political and economic independence through control of trade, capital, and technology flows. The second dimension concerns the policing of technology licenses by competition authorities, and the co-ordination of national competition policies relating to technology.