Abstract: Study 1 was a 3-yr longitudinal study of 1,124 divorcing families that focused on custodial arrangements and interparental communication and conflict. Study 2 was a follow-up study of the adolescent children from the Study 1 families that focused on adolescents' relationships with resident and nonresident parents, on processes in each parental household, and on adolescents' adjustment in different custodial arrangements. Parental roles differed substantially after divorce, with mothers carrying the primary responsibility for residential care and economic support. Most fathers remained substantially involved in their children's lives over the duration of the studies. Adolescents were doing at least as well in joint physical custody as when living primarily with 1 parent. The possible costs and benefits of maintaining contact with nonresident parents are discussed.