Holger Spamann, Lawyers’ Role-Induced Bias Arises Fast and Persists Despite Intervention (Harv. L. Sch. John M. Olin Ctr. Discussion Paper No. 1005, May 15, 2019).
Abstract: Law students randomly assigned to represent one side in a legal argument in the classroom exhibit substantial role-induced prediction bias for their side within only 40 minutes of their role assignment. Reminding students that prediction requires a more neutral perspective than advocacy does not attenuate the bias. The bias occurs evenly in male and female participants, who also report equal confidence in their predictions.