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David Rosenberg, Joint and Several Liability for Toxic Torts, 15 J. Hazardous Materials 219 (1987).

Abstract: Joint and several liability can be an effective instrument for regulating the risk of and compensating the losses from toxic torts. The doctrinal evolution of the joint and several rule from one concerned primarily with concerted and joint ventures to its expansive, modern application in toxic tort cases which involve numerous, independently operated firms is sketched. Fairness and efficiency objections are discussed and brief concluding observations are given.