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Holger Spamann, Extension: Lawyers' Role-Induced Bias Arises Fast and Persists despite Intervention, 49 J. Leg. Stud. 467 (2020).

Abstract: Law students randomly assigned to represent one side in a legal argument in the classroom exhibit substantial role-induced prediction bias for their side within only 40 minutes of their role assignment. Reminding students that prediction requires a more neutral perspective than advocacy does not attenuate the bias. The bias occurs evenly in male and female participants, who also report equal confidence in their predictions.