Michael Ashley Stein, Christopher P. Guzelian & Kristina M. Guzelian, Expert Testimony in Nineteenth Century Malapraxis Actions, 55 Am. J. Legal Hist. 194 (2015).
Abstract: Medical negligence evolved as an independent tort during the nineteenth century. Despite pervasive professional concerns about its ethicality, paid medical expert testimony became routine. In a manner strikingly similar to modern commentary, prominentjurists disparaged testimony for commonly relating anecdotal experience rother than scientifically derived knowledge. Also notable among cases was a dominant tendency to rule for medical practitioners when both parties presented expert testimony. Conversely, suits resolved in favour of whichever party unilaterally retained a testifying expert.