Abstract: The distribution of crucial medical goods and services in conditions of scarcity is among the most important, albeit contested, areas of public policy development. Policymakers must strike a balance between multiple efficiency and fairness objectives, while reconciling disparate value judgments from a diverse set of stakeholders. We present a general framework for combining ethical theory, data modeling, and stakeholder input in this process and illustrate through a case study on designing organ transplant allocation policies. We develop a novel analytical tool, based on machine learning and optimization, designed to facilitate efficient and wide-ranging exploration of policy outcomes across multiple objectives. Such a tool enables all stakeholders, regardless of their technical expertise, to more effectively engage in the policymaking process by developing evidence-based value judgments based on relevant tradeoffs.