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Yoshiro Miwa & J. Mark Ramseyer, Deregulation and Market Response in Contemporary Japan: Administrative Guidance, 'Keiretsu,' and Main Banks (Harv. L. Sch. L. & Econ. Res. Paper Series, Discussion Paper No. 462, Mar. 2004).

Abstract: Change is in the air in Japan, claim many observers: The government is radically deregulating crucial sectors of the economy, the large firms are unwinding their keiretsu corporate groups, and firms and banks are dismantling their main bank arrangements. Some observers see all three as exogenous institutional shocks, while others treat the last two as behavioral responses to the first. In fact, although the first phenomenon would constitute an institutional change if it occurred, it has not - for Japanese bureaucrats had no substantial regulatory power to abandon. Although the last two would constitute market responses if they occurred, they have not either - for firms and banks maintained no groups or main-bank arrangements to unwind or dismantle.