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Martha Minow, Before and After ‘Vengeance and Forgiveness’, in Leading Works in International Law (Donna Lyons ed., 2023).

Abstract: The Facing History team always emphasised the importance of integrating head and heart in learning, especially in learning about hard issues. Madam Ogata, a political scientist from Japan and daughter of a diplomat, was trained at the University of California and became a professor and a dean in Japan before her appointment as the first woman to lead the UN High Commissioner for Refugees. Movements to recognise individual human rights challenge the historical conceptions of borders. Once each individual is understood to be a rights bearer of equal dignity, the rationales of family privacy and state sovereignty no longer shield violations of individual rights from view and action. In the wake of intergroup violence, the usual calls urge reconciliation or sufficient quelling of the disturbance to permit peaceful coexistence.