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Louis Kaplow & Steven Shavell, Any Non‐welfarist Method of Policy Assessment Violates the Pareto Principle, 109 J. Pol. Econ. 281 (2001).

Abstract: The public at large, many policymakers, and a number of economists hold views of social welfare that are non‐welfarist. That is, they attach some importance to factors other than the effects of policies on individuals’ utilities. We show, however, that any non‐welfarist method of policy assessment violates the Pareto principle.