Abstract: Economic analysis in general has difficulty accommodating the concept of rights. The economic analysis of health care in particular proposes triage as the model of a rational delivery system, with no place for traditional ethical limits and obligations. Familiar arguments based on resource constraints do not prove that rights cannot reasonably be recognized. Nor are rights in general and rights in medical care in particular adequately respected by attending to considerations of just distribution or equity. Rights in medical care are different from rights to medical care, and must be respected in any decent, advanced society. That such rights may be overridden in emergencies does not mean that respect for rights is not a constraint upon the pursuit of equity and efficiency.