Samantha Powers, Stopping Genocide and Securing "Justice": Learning by Doing, 69 Soc. Res. 1093 (2002).
Abstract: Examines the US unwillingness to use diplomatic means or resources to stop genocide, & then turns to some metrics that gauge the effectiveness of international tribunals. Americans from the micro- to macro-level tend to deny the horrors of genocide. The US could use various methods to stop genocide, from soft sanctions, freezing of assets, expelling officials & closing embassies, jamming hate media, & giving military intervention, but Bosnia is the only incident in which these methods were used. International tribunals can perform seven functions: retribution; deterrence; incapacitation; acknowledgement of the victims; revealing the truth & creating a historical record; achieving fairness; & establishing personal responsibility for crimes against humanity. Tribunals have accomplished monumental steps toward social justice, but they have often been established for political needs & to avoid political costs, &, therefore, reflect that orientation, rather than being fully responsive to victims.