Although the Historical & Special Collections Department was only organized as an administrative unit in 1985, the history of the collecting of historical legal materials at the Harvard Law School Library dates to the founding of the Law School. The importance of a well-equipped library in the education of lawyers was recognized at the very founding of the Harvard Law School.
The resolutions adopted by the Harvard Corporation on May 14, 1817 that established “a school for the instruction of students at law under the patronage of the University” also stated that “a complete Law Library be obtained for their use as soon as means for the purpose be found.” By 1840 the Library’s holdings exceeded 6,000 volumes, thanks to gifts by Nathan Dane, Joseph Story, Christopher Gore, and other early benefactors. In 1842 the Visiting Committee could report that every citation in Blackstone could be verified in the Library. Writing in 1899 Albert Dicey, the Vinerian Professor of English Law at Oxford, reported that the “library constitutes the most perfect collection of the legal records of the English people to be found in any part of the English-speaking world.”
The first half of the twentieth century saw a remarkable growth in the Library’s collections of primary materials devoted to the study of legal history. In 1912, the Library acquired the 14,000-volume law library formed by the Marquis de Olivart of Madrid, the catalogue of which for many years had served as the standard bibliography of international law. A year later, the collection of early English law collected by the English barrister, George Dunn, was purchased en bloc for the School; this acquisition, augmented in the intervening years by gift and purchase, now contains copies of more than 90 percent of extant English law books printed before 1601. In 1931 the Library obtained the jurisprudence section of the library formed by the Princes of Stolberg in Wernigerode, Germany. Among these 10,000 volumes were legal incunabula; international law documents from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; and a large collection of Roman law, canon law, and civil law.
By the end of World War II, it was apparent that the Library needed professional staff and appropriate facilities to care for its valuable historical collections.
In a “Statement by the Faculty,” which formed the preface to the prospectus that was sent to potential donors to a Treasure Room fund Dean Griswold wrote:
As early as 1942 the Director of the University Library suggested that in the interests of scholarship we might have to surrender our precious books and manuscripts to the care of the Houghton Library [Harvard University’s rare books and manuscripts library, the exhibition hall of which provided the inspiration for the design of the Treasure Room], where the bulk of the University’s literary treasures are kept under well-nigh perfect physical conditions. He and we prefer that this should not be done. Unseen, as at present, the collection fails of its full function. Our students can best appreciate this rare heritage of law only if its materials are both visible and readily accessible on the premises. To fulfill our responsibilities to the world of scholarship, improved facilities for protecting, showing, and using the collection are essential. To discharge our obligation to those who study here, the working, storage, and exhibition quarters must be in the Law School itself.
More than 1,500 alumni and friends of the School contributed $55,000 to the fund, and the Treasure Room and adjacent stacks opened for use on August 15, 1948.
Over the next few decades, the Treasure Room was largely successful in accomplishing the goals that Dean Griswold and the faculty envisioned. In particular, the Library began to stage educational exhibitions to publicize its resources and programs. The Treasure Room’s first two curators, Eleanor Little and Edith Henderson, presented exhibitions focusing on the historical collections of the Library. With the addition in the 1970s of curators for manuscripts and legal art, the size and frequency of exhibitions increased dramatically due to the efforts of the first two incumbents, Erika Chadbourn and Bernice Loss. A fine series of exhibitions staged in the 1980s by the Manuscripts Department, for example, featured the Sacco-Vanzetti, Holmes, Frankfurter, and Hastie Collections. This series brought the Library national attention through articles published in the New Yorker and in various newspapers.
By the late 1970s, however, the original space set aside for special collections was full. More materials in the Library’s general collections were recognized as deserving special care; these alone would fill the Treasure Room stacks several times over. Moreover, the Treasure Room, functioning as both an exhibition hall and as a special reading room, proved to be an unsatisfactory arrangement in the space formerly occupied by a classroom. The Treasure Room was not designed to accommodate portraits and other examples of the school’s growing collections of legal art.
In 1978 the Library addressed the first of these concerns by constructing climate-controlled, compact stacks. At the same time, it assumed custody of the School’s legal art. The creation of the Special Collections Department in 1985, placed into one administrative unit the responsibility for the acquisition, cataloging, preservation, and research use of its rare book, manuscript, and art collections. With a revitalized exhibitions program and ever increasing use of the collections by scholars, it became increasingly apparent that the Treasure Room could not continue to serve simultaneously the several purposes for which it was originally intended. In May 1990, the Root Room, an informal student lounge on the fourth floor of Langdell, was converted into a reading room for researchers consulting special collections; the Treasure Room continued to be used for exhibitions and lectures.
When the Library was renovated in 1997, the Department gained refurbished Special Collections reading room, the Root Room, with direct access for staff by stair and elevator to the two floors of compact stacks that house the Herbert Robinson ’40 Anglo-American Rare Law Book Collection and other rare book and manuscript collections. Two floors of office and work space for Historical & Special Collections staff adjoin the Root Room. A new office and visual materials storage area was constructed above the renovated Treasure Room, renamed the Caspersen Room in honor of Finn W. Caspersen ’66.
History of the Root Room & Caspersen Room
The Elihu Root Room, located at the south end of the fourth floor in Langdell Hall, is the Historical & Special Collections reading room. It was named in honor of Elihu Root (1845-1937) when it was opened a year after his death. A leader of the American Bar, Root served on the League of Nations commission that framed the statute for the Permanent Court of International Justice in 1920. The room provides a secure and functional space for the use of the Library’s rare books, manuscripts, and visual materials. A portrait of Root, acquired by the Library in 1946, hangs outside the entrance to the Root Room.
At the north end of the fourth floor main reading room is the Caspersen Room (formerly the Treasure Room), which serves as an exhibit hall for material in the Library’s collections and as a venue for special functions at the School. It was opened in 1948 as a memorial to the School’s students and alumni who died in World War I and II. For over six decades the room has been a showcase for printed books, manuscripts, art works, and memorabilia that document the history of the law and of the Harvard Law School. The Caspersen Room is the permanent home for some of the School’s finest works of art, including the portrait of Isaac Royall and his Family painted in 1741 by the American painter Robert Feke, portraits of English barristers painted by Romney and Raeburn, a Dutch case clock once owned by Dean Langdell, and the round desk built in 1927 for Dean Pound. The glass-fronted bookcases contain part of Dean Pound’s personal library.
The Caspersen Room is generally open to the public from 9:00am to 5:00pm, Monday through Friday (closed for special events).
More information about the Library’s special collections can be found in the following publications:
- Chadbourn, Erika S., “Documenting the American Legal Scene: The Manuscript Division of the Harvard Law School Library” in Harvard Library Bulletin, v. 30 (1982), pp. 55-73.
- Dawson, John P., “The Harvard Collections of Foreign Law: Changing Dimensions of Legal Study” in Harvard Library Bulletin, v. 16 (1968), pp. 101-110.
- Little, Eleanor N., “The Acquisition of the Dunn Collection of Early English Law Books” in Harvard Law School Bulletin (December 1955), pp. 10-11.
- Pound, Roscoe, “Extracts from Notes by Roscoe Pound on the School’s Portrait Collection of British Judges and Lawyers” in Harvard Law School Bulletin, v. 5 (1954), p. 2, 7.
- Pound, Roscoe, “The Harvard Law Library,” in Harvard Library Bulletin, v. 5 (1951), pp. 290-303.
- Weber, Hilmar H., “Some Notes on the Stolberg Library” in Harvard Alumni Bulletin, (April 27, 1934), pp. 799-808.