Published from to
Publication Types
Categories
Alan M. Dershowitz, Defending Israel: The Story of My Relationship with My Most Challenging Client (2019).
Categories:
Legal Profession
,
Government & Politics
,
International, Foreign & Comparative Law
Sub-Categories:
Legal Services
Type: Book
Alan M. Dershowitz, Opinion, A Yellow Light for Red-Flag Laws, Wall St. J. (Aug. 6, 2019, 6:55 PM).
Categories:
Constitutional Law
Sub-Categories:
Second Amendment
Type: News
Alan M. Dershowitz, I Want to be Investigated by the FBI, Wall St. J., Mar. 22, 2019, at A15.
Categories:
Criminal Law & Procedure
Sub-Categories:
Criminal Evidence
,
Criminal Defense
Type: News
Alan M. Dershowitz, Don’t Let Mueller’s Report Go Unanswered, Wall St. J., Dec. 3, 2018, at A17.
Categories:
Government & Politics
Sub-Categories:
Politics & Political Theory
,
Executive Office
,
Government Accountability
Type: News
Alan M. Dershowitz, This Is No Mere 'Job Interview', Wall St. J., Oct. 1, 2018, at A17.
Categories:
Government & Politics
Sub-Categories:
Supreme Court of the United States
,
Politics & Political Theory
,
Judges & Jurisprudence
Type: News
Alan M. Dershowitz, Bad Sports Don't Deserve To Lose, Wall St. J., Sept. 14, 2018, at A17.
Categories:
Disciplinary Perspectives & Law
Sub-Categories:
Gaming & Sports Law
Type: News
Alan Dershowitz, The Case Against Impeaching Trump (2018).
Categories:
Government & Politics
Sub-Categories:
Executive Office
,
Corruption
,
Government Accountability
,
Politics & Political Theory
Type: Book
Alan M. Dershowitz, Trump’s better Off Litigating than Testifying, USA Today, May 4, 2018, at A7.
Categories:
Criminal Law & Procedure
,
Government & Politics
Sub-Categories:
Jury Trials
,
Criminal Prosecution
,
Executive Office
Type: News
Alan M. Dershowitz, Poland Seeks to Censor History, Wall St. J., Feb. 6, 2018, at A19.
Categories:
International, Foreign & Comparative Law
Sub-Categories:
Foreign Law
Type: News
Alan M. Dershowitz, The Case Against BDS: Why Singling out Israel for Boycott is Anti-Semitic and Anti-Peace (2018).
Categories:
Discrimination & Civil Rights
,
International, Foreign & Comparative Law
Sub-Categories:
Discrimination
,
Foreign Relations
Type: Book
Abstract
"In a never-ending attempt to destroy Israel, Muslim countries, the international Left, and anti-Semites of all political stripes have joined forces to create a worldwide campaign aimed at the economic and cultural isolation fo the Jewish State. BDS aims to de-legitimize Israel's very existence--barring it from international organizations, cultural exchanges, and global economic activity ... The Case Against BDS is a must-read for all people of goodwill who support Israel's right to exist. Only by shining sunlight on the shady origins and dishonest methods of BDS can we hope to defeat it"--Page 4 of cover.
Alan M. Dershowitz, Op-Ed., When Politics is Criminalized, N.Y. Times, Nov. 29, 2017, at A23.
Categories:
Government & Politics
Sub-Categories:
Congress & Legislation
,
Corruption
,
Executive Office
,
Politics & Political Theory
,
Government Accountability
Type: News
Alan Dershowitz, Original Intent: The Many Arguments of Justice Antonin Scalia, N.Y. Times Book Rev., Nov. 5, 2017, at 10 (reviewing Scalia Speaks (Christopher J. Scalia & Edward Whelan eds., 2017)).
Categories:
Government & Politics
,
Legal Profession
Sub-Categories:
Judges & Jurisprudence
,
Supreme Court of the United States
,
Biography & Tribute
Type: News
Alan M. Dershowitz, The Hard Right and Hard Left Pose Different Dangers, Wall St. J., Sept. 11, 2017.
Categories:
Government & Politics
Sub-Categories:
Politics & Political Theory
,
National Security Law
Type: News
Alan Dershowitz, Trumped Up: How Criminalization of Political Differences Endangers Democracy (2017).
Categories:
Government & Politics
Sub-Categories:
Executive Office
,
Elections & Voting
,
Politics & Political Theory
Type: Book
Abstract
In our current age of hyper-partisan politics, nearly everyone takes sides. This is especially true with regard to the Trump presidency. It has become difficult to have a reasonable discussion about the most controversial president in our recent history. For Trump zealots, their president has not only committed no crimes, he has done nothing wrong. For anti-Trump zealots, nothing Trump has done—even in foreign policy—is good. Everything he has done is wrong, and since it is wrong, it must necessarily be criminal. This deeply undemocratic fallacy—that political sins must be investigated and prosecuted as criminal—is an exceedingly dangerous trend. Hardening positions on both sides has been manifested by increasing demands to criminalize political differences. Both sides scream “lock ‘em up” instead of making substantive criticisms of opposing views. The real fear, as Alan Dershowitz argues, in this compelling collection, is that we have weakened our national commitment to civil liberties as the Left becomes ever more intolerant and the Right slips into authoritarian rhetoric. The vibrant center is weakening, with traditional liberalism and conservatism becoming further apart, not just in approach, but in their respect for Constitutional norms that have served us well for more than two centuries. While Donald Trump is not the only cause of this profound division, his election drew it to the surface and made it the dominant paradigm of political debate. Unless we as a nation begin to focus again on what unites us rather than on what divides us, America might not survive the next decade.
Wendy Kaminer & Alan Dershowitz, Where’s the ACLU When You Need It?, Wall St. J., May 11, 2017.
Categories:
Constitutional Law
,
Government & Politics
,
Discrimination & Civil Rights
Sub-Categories:
First Amendment
,
Civil Rights
,
Politics & Political Theory
Type: News
Alan M. Dershowitz, Abraham: The World’s First (But Certainly Not Last) Jewish Lawyer (Schocken Books 2015).
Categories:
Disciplinary Perspectives & Law
,
Legal Profession
Sub-Categories:
Jewish Law
,
Legal History
Type: Book
Abstract
"One of the world’s best-known attorneys gives us a no-holds-barred history of Jewish lawyers: from the biblical Abraham through modern-day advocates who have changed the world by challenging the status quo, defending the unpopular, contributing to the rule of law, and following the biblical command to pursue justice. The Hebrew Bible’s two great examples of advocacy on behalf of problematic defendants—Abraham trying to convince God not to destroy the people of Sodom, and Moses trying to convince God not to destroy the golden-calf-worshipping Children of Israel—established the template for Jewish lawyers for the next 4,500 years. Whether because throughout history Jews have found themselves unjustly accused of crimes ranging from deicide to ritual child murder to treason, or because the biblical exhortation that “justice, justice, shall you pursue” has been implanted in the Jewish psyche, Jewish lawyers have been at the forefront in battles against tyranny, in advocating for those denied due process, in negotiating for just and equitable solutions to complex legal problems, and in efforts to ensure a fair trial for anyone accused of a crime. Dershowitz profiles Jewish lawyers well-known and unheralded, admired and excoriated, victorious and defeated—and, of course, gives us some glimpses into the gung-ho practice of law, Dershowitz-style. Louis Brandeis, Theodor Herzl, Judah Benjamin, Max Hirschberg, René Cassin, Bruno Kreisky, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, and Irwin Cotler are just a few of the “idol smashers, advocates, collaborators, rescuers, and deal makers” who helped to change history. Dershowitz’s thoughts on the future of the Jewish lawyer are presented with the same insight, shrewdness, and candor that are the hallmarks of his more than four decades of writings on the law and how it is (and should be!) practiced." --Publisher
Alan M. Dershowitz, The Case Against the Goldstone Report: A Study in Evidentiary Bias (Harv. Pub. L. Working Paper No. 10-26, Jan. 27, 2010).
Categories:
International, Foreign & Comparative Law
Sub-Categories:
Foreign Relations
,
International Law
,
Laws of Armed Conflict
,
Nonprofit & Nongovernmental Organizations
,
Human Rights Law
,
International Humanitarian Law
Type: Other
Abstract
The Goldstone Report, when read in full and in context, is much worse than most of its detractors (and supporters) believe. It is far more accusatory of Israel, far less balanced in its criticism of Hamas, far less honest in its evaluation of the evidence, far less responsible in drawing its conclusion, far more biased against Israeli than Palestinian witnesses, and far more willing to draw adverse inferences of intentionality from Israeli conduct and statements than from comparable Palestinian conduct and statements. It is worse than any report previously prepared by any other United Nations agency or human rights group. As Major General Avichai Mandelblit, the advocate general of the Israeli Defense Forces, aptly put it: “I have read every report, from Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International, the Arab League. We ourselves set up investigations into 140 complaints. It is when you read these other reports and complaints that you realize how truly vicious the Goldstone report is. He made it look like we set out to go after the economic infrastructure and civilians, that it was intentional: It’s a vicious lie. The Goldstone report is, to any fair reader, a shoddy piece of work, unworthy of serious consideration by people of good will, committed to the truth.
Alan M. Dershowitz, Finding, Framing, and Hanging Jefferson: A Lost Letter, a Remarkable Discovery, and Freedom of Speech in an Age of Terrorism (John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2008).
Categories:
Legal Profession
,
Constitutional Law
Sub-Categories:
First Amendment
,
Biography & Tribute
,
Legal History
Type: Book
Abstract
The #1 New York Times bestselling author, Harvard Law School professor, and tireless defender of civil liberties unearths a little-known letter by his hero, Thomas Jefferson, and shares its secrets. The letter illuminates Jefferson’s views on freedom of speech in a way that has important implications for the country today, particularly in the struggle against terrorism. This book is about the remarkable letter Dershowitz found, how he found it, and why it matters not only to him, but to us today.
Ronald Kuby, Greta Van Susteren, Alan M. Dershowitz, Roy Black & Michael Tigar, If I Represented bin Laden... Comments, 93 A.B.A. J., Sept. 2007, at 42.
Categories:
Criminal Law & Procedure
,
Legal Profession
Sub-Categories:
Criminal Defense
,
Terrorism
,
Legal Services
,
Legal Ethics
Type: Article
Alan M. Dershowitz, The Belmont Strangler, N.Y. Times, Apr. 16, 2006, at BR12 (reviewing Sebastian Junger, A Death in Belmont (2006)).
Categories:
Criminal Law & Procedure
Sub-Categories:
Criminal Prosecution
,
Criminal Justice & Law Enforcement
,
Criminal Evidence
Type: Article
Alan M. Dershowitz, 'In the Shadow of the Law': Their Finest Billable Hour, N.Y. Times, June 12, 2005, at BR19 (reviewing Kermit Roosevelt, In the Shadow of the Law (2005)).
Categories:
Legal Profession
Sub-Categories:
Legal Services
Type: Article
Alan M. Dershowitz, In Memoriam: John Hart Ely, 117 Harv. L. Rev. 1743 (2004).
Categories:
Legal Profession
Sub-Categories:
Biography & Tribute
,
Legal Scholarship
,
Legal Education
Type: Article
Alan M. Dershowitz, America on Trial: Inside the Legal Battles That Transformed Our Nation (Warner Books 2004).
Categories:
Legal Profession
,
Criminal Law & Procedure
,
Government & Politics
Sub-Categories:
Jury Trials
,
Courts
,
Judges & Jurisprudence
,
Supreme Court of the United States
,
Legal History
Type: Book
Abstract
The Boston Massacre. The Dred Scott decision. The Chicago Seven. O.J. Simpson. These are some of the trials that have both shaped and fascinated American society. Alan M. Dershowitz, who has been either a lawyer, consultant, or commentator on some of the most celebrated cases of the 1970s, 80s and 90s, highlights the trials he believes to be the most significant in our history, and discuses how they were central to the development of America's political and social structure.
Alan M. Dershowitz, Rights from Wrongs: A Secular Theory of the Origins of Rights (Basic Books 2004).
Categories:
Discrimination & Civil Rights
,
International, Foreign & Comparative Law
,
Environmental Law
,
Government & Politics
,
Constitutional Law
,
Disciplinary Perspectives & Law
Sub-Categories:
Religion
,
Constitutional History
,
Civil Rights
,
Religious Rights
,
Legal Theory & Philosophy
,
Animal Law
,
Politics & Political Theory
,
Human Rights Law
Type: Book
Abstract
Where do our rights come from Does "natural law" really exist outside of what is written in constitutions and legal statutes If so, why are rights not the same everywhere and in all eras On the other hand, if rights are nothing more than the product
Alan M. Dershowitz, Infinite Justice, 225 New Republic, Oct. 8, 2001, at 6.
Categories:
Criminal Law & Procedure
Sub-Categories:
Terrorism
,
Sentencing & Punishment
,
Jury Trials
Type: Article
Alan M. Dershowitz, A Tribute to Joseph Goldstein, 110 Yale L.J. 907 (2001).
Categories:
Legal Profession
Sub-Categories:
Biography & Tribute
,
Legal Education
,
Legal Scholarship
Type: Article
Alan M. Dershowitz, Stoolies, N.Y. Times, July 16, 2000, at BR16 (reviewing Dick Lehr & Gerard O’Neill, Black Mass: The Irish Mob, the FBI, and a Devil’s Deal (2000)).
Categories:
Criminal Law & Procedure
Sub-Categories:
Criminal Justice & Law Enforcement
,
Criminal Prosecution
Type: Article
Alan M. Dershowitz, Elie Wiesel: A Biblical Life, in Celebrating Elie Wiesel: Stories, Essays, Reflections ix (Alan Rosen ed., 1998).
Categories:
International, Foreign & Comparative Law
,
Disciplinary Perspectives & Law
Sub-Categories:
Jewish Law
,
Religion & Law
,
Human Rights Law
Type: Book
Alan M. Dershowitz, Reasonable Doubts: The Criminal Justice System and the O.J. Simpson Case (Simon & Schuster 1997).
Categories:
Criminal Law & Procedure
Sub-Categories:
Criminal Evidence
,
Criminal Justice & Law Enforcement
,
Jury Trials
,
Criminal Defense
,
Criminal Prosecution
Type: Book
Abstract
One of America's leading appeal lawyers, Alan Dershowitz was the man chosen to prepare the appeal should O.J. Simpson have been convicted. Now Professor Dershowitz uses this case to examine the larger issues and to identify the social forces - media, money, gender, and race - that shape the criminal-justice system in America today. How could one of the longest trials in the history of America's judicial system produce a verdict after only hours of jury deliberation? Was this really a case of circumstantial evidence?
Alan M. Dershowitz, The Death Penalty in the Court: How It All Began, in Reason and Passion Justice Brennan's Enduring Influence (E. Joshua Rosenkranz & Bernard Schwartz eds., 1997).
Categories:
Legal Profession
,
Government & Politics
,
Criminal Law & Procedure
,
Constitutional Law
Sub-Categories:
Eighth Amendment
,
Capital Punishment
,
Supreme Court of the United States
,
Judges & Jurisprudence
,
Biography & Tribute
Type: Book
Alan M. Dershowitz, Life Is Not a Dramatic Narrative, in Law's Stories: Narrative and Rhetoric in the Law 99 (Peter Brooks & Paul Gewirtz eds., 1996).
Categories:
Disciplinary Perspectives & Law
Sub-Categories:
Law & Humanities
Type: Book
Alan M. Dershowitz, What’s Mercy Got to Do With It?, N.Y. Times, July 16, 1989, at BR7 (reviewing Kathleen Dean Moore, Pardons: Justice, Mercy, and the Public Interest (1989)).
Categories:
Criminal Law & Procedure
Sub-Categories:
Sentencing & Punishment
Type: Article
William T. Coleman, Jr., Alan M. Dershowitz, Jack H. Friedenthal & Michael Walsh, In Honor of John Hart Ely, 40 Stan. L. Rev. 357 (1988).
Categories:
Constitutional Law
,
Legal Profession
Sub-Categories:
Biography & Tribute
,
Legal Education
,
Legal Scholarship
Type: Article
Alan M. Dershowitz, Behind Closed Doors, A.B.A. J., Oct. 1, 1987, at 144 (reviewing James Stewart, The Prosecutors (1987)).
Categories:
Criminal Law & Procedure
Sub-Categories:
Criminal Prosecution
Type: Article
Alan M. Dershowitz, Managing Crime, N.Y. Times, Mar. 17, 1985, at BR30 (reviewing Bruce Jackson, Law and Disorder (1984)).
Categories:
Criminal Law & Procedure
Sub-Categories:
Criminal Justice & Law Enforcement
Type: Article
Alan M. Dershowitz, Pornography: Love or Death?, 20 Film Comment, Nov./Dec. 1984, at 33.
Categories:
Constitutional Law
,
Disciplinary Perspectives & Law
Sub-Categories:
First Amendment
,
Arts & Entertainment Law
Type: Article
Alan M. Dershowitz, Spies and Scapegoats, N.Y. Times, Aug. 4, 1983, at BR1 (reviewing Ronald Radosh & Joyce Milton, The Rosenberg File: A Search for the Truth (1983)).
Categories:
Criminal Law & Procedure
,
Government & Politics
Sub-Categories:
Criminal Prosecution
,
Capital Punishment
,
Sentencing & Punishment
,
National Security Law
,
Politics & Political Theory
Type: Article
Alan M. Dershowitz, Crime and the Court, N.Y. Times, June 26, 1983, at BR10 (reviewing Liva Baker, Miranda: Crime, Law and Politics (1983)).
Categories:
Criminal Law & Procedure
,
Government & Politics
,
Constitutional Law
Sub-Categories:
Fifth Amendment
,
Fourteenth Amendment
,
Criminal Prosecution
,
Jury Trials
,
Criminal Justice & Law Enforcement
,
Supreme Court of the United States
,
Judges & Jurisprudence
Type: Article
Alan M. Dershowitz, Agents and Indians, N.Y. Times, Mar. 6, 1983, at BR1 (reviewing Peter Matthiessen, In the Spirit of Crazy Horse (1983)).
Categories:
Criminal Law & Procedure
,
Discrimination & Civil Rights
Sub-Categories:
Criminal Justice & Law Enforcement
,
Criminal Defense
,
Native American & Tribal Law
Type: Article
Crystal A. Leslie, George Wald, Alfred Gellhorn, Theodore L. Eliot, Alan M. Dershowitz & Herman Pollack, Arrests in Afghanistan, 217 Science 1202 (1982).
Categories:
International, Foreign & Comparative Law
Sub-Categories:
Human Rights Law
Type: Article
Alan M. Dershowitz, Book Review, Psychol. Today, Jan. 1, 1982, at 75 (reviewing Willard Gaylin, The Killing of Bonnie Garland: A Question of Justice (1982)).
Categories:
Criminal Law & Procedure
,
Health Care
Sub-Categories:
Jury Trials
,
Criminal Prosecution
,
Criminal Defense
,
Criminal Evidence
,
Psychology & Psychiatry
Type: Article
Alan M. Dershowitz, The Source of Justice in the Mind of a Justice, N.Y. Times, Feb. 22, 1981, at BR13 (reviewing H.N. Hirsch, The Enigma of Felix Frankfurter (1981)).
Categories:
Government & Politics
,
Legal Profession
Sub-Categories:
Judges & Jurisprudence
,
Supreme Court of the United States
,
Biography & Tribute
Type: Article
Alan M. Dershowitz, Foreword: Evaluating a Proposed Criminal Code, 72 J. Crim. L. & Criminology 381 (1981).
Categories:
Criminal Law & Procedure
,
Government & Politics
Sub-Categories:
Criminal Prosecution
,
Sentencing & Punishment
,
Congress & Legislation
Type: Article
Abstract
Symposium on the Policies and Legal Theories Underlying the Proposed Federal Criminal Code.
Alan M. Dershowitz, Judge as Statesman, Judge as Pol, N.Y. Times, Nov. 22, 1981, at BR7 (reviewing Preble Stolz, Judging judges: The investigation of Rose Bird and the California Supreme Court (1981)).
Categories:
Government & Politics
Sub-Categories:
Politics & Political Theory
,
Judges & Jurisprudence
,
Elections & Voting
,
Corruption
,
State & Local Government
Type: Article
Alan M. Dershowitz, Inside the Sanctum Sanctorum, N.Y. Times, Nov. 2, 1980, at BR3 (reviewing William O. Douglas, The Court Years: 1939-1975 (1980) and James F. Simon, Independent Journey: The Life of William O. Douglas (1980)).
Categories:
Government & Politics
,
Legal Profession
Sub-Categories:
Judges & Jurisprudence
,
Supreme Court of the United States
,
Biography & Tribute
Type: Article
Alan M. Dershowitz, Legal Points and People, N.Y. Times, Aug. 31, 1980, at BR3 (reviewing Charles Rembar, The Law of the Land: The Evolution of our Legal System (1980)).
Categories:
Legal Profession
Sub-Categories:
Legal History
Type: Article
Alan Dershowitz, Book Review, New Republic, May 31, 1980, at 25 (reviewing G. Gordon Liddy, Will: The Autobiography of G. Gordon Liddy (1980)).
Categories:
Government & Politics
,
Criminal Law & Procedure
Sub-Categories:
Corruption
,
Executive Office
,
Politics & Political Theory
Type: Article
Alan M. Dershowitz, Letter, Harvard Law School, Commentary, Dec. 1979, at 14.
Categories:
Constitutional Law
Sub-Categories:
First Amendment
Type: Article
Alan M. Dershowitz, Letter, The Revised Criminal Code: Continuing the Dialogue, 226 Nation 403 (1978).
Categories:
Criminal Law & Procedure
Sub-Categories:
Sentencing & Punishment
,
Criminal Justice & Law Enforcement
Type: Article
Alan M. Dershowitz, Guilty or Crazy as Charged, N.Y. Times, Nov. 20, 1977, at BR6 (reviewing The USSR vs. Dr. Mikhail Stern: The Only Tape Recording of a Trial Smuggled Out of the Soviet Union, August Stern, ed. & Marco Carynnyk, trans. (1977); Sidney Bloch & Peter Reddaway, Psychiatric Terror: How Soviet Psychiatry Is Used to Suppress Dissent (1977)).
Categories:
International, Foreign & Comparative Law
,
Criminal Law & Procedure
,
Health Care
,
Government & Politics
Sub-Categories:
Criminal Prosecution
,
Politics & Political Theory
,
Corruption
,
Courts
,
Psychology & Psychiatry
,
Foreign Law
Type: Article
Alan M. Dershowitz, The Judge Judged, N.Y. Times, Apr. 10, 1977, at BR9 (reviewing Gerald T. Dunne, Hugo Black and the Judicial Revolution (1977)).
Categories:
Government & Politics
,
Legal Profession
Sub-Categories:
Judges & Jurisprudence
,
Supreme Court of the United States
,
Biography & Tribute
Type: Article
Donald I. Baker, Barbara A. Reeves, Alan M. Dershowitz, Arthur L. Liman & Stanton Wheeler , The Paper Label Sentences: Critiques, 86 Yale L.J. 619 (1977).
Categories:
Criminal Law & Procedure
,
Government & Politics
,
Corporate Law & Securities
Sub-Categories:
Sentencing & Punishment
,
Antitrust & Competition Law
,
Judges & Jurisprudence
Type: Article
Alan M. Dershowitz, Betraying the Bill of Rights, N.Y. Times, Nov. 28, 1976, at BR1 (reviewing Richard Harris, Freedom Spent (1976)).
Categories:
Constitutional Law
,
Government & Politics
,
Criminal Law & Procedure
Sub-Categories:
First Amendment
,
Fourth Amendment
,
Criminal Justice & Law Enforcement
,
Politics & Political Theory
,
Courts
Type: Article
Alan M. Dershowitz, Criminal Sentencing in the United States: An Historical and Conceptual Overview, 423 Annals Am. Acad. Pol. & Soc. Sci. 117 (1976).
Categories:
Criminal Law & Procedure
Sub-Categories:
Sentencing & Punishment
Type: Article
Abstract
The criminal sentence seeks to reduce the frequency and severity of crimes by employing the following mechanisms: (a) isolating the convicted criminal from the rest of the population, so that he is unable to commit crimes during the period of his enforced isolation; (b) punishing the con victed prisoner, so that he—and others contemplating crime —will be deterred by the prospect of a painful response if convicted; (c) rehabilitating the convicted criminal, so that his desire or need to commit future crimes will be diminished. During different periods of our history, the power to deter mine the duration of a convicted criminal's sentence has been allocated to different agencies: first to the legislature; then to the judiciary; and now—under indeterminate sentencing—to the parole board. The locus of sentencing authority has a con siderable effect on such factors as the length of sentences, the degree of discretion, and the disparity among sentences. The century-long trend in the direction of indeterminancy seems to be ending. It is likely that the coming decades will witness a return to more legislatively-fixed sentences.