Published from to
Publication Types
Categories
Samuel Moyn, Knowledge and Politics in International Law, 129 Harv. L. Rev. 2164 (2016)(reviewing David W. Kennedy, A World of Struggle: How Power, Law, and Global Expertise Shape Global Political Economy (2016)).
Categories:
International, Foreign & Comparative Law
,
Disciplinary Perspectives & Law
Sub-Categories:
Law & Political Theory
,
Legal Theory & Philosophy
Type: Article
Samuel Moyn, Christian Human Rights (Univ. Pa. Press 2015).
Categories:
Disciplinary Perspectives & Law
,
International, Foreign & Comparative Law
Sub-Categories:
Religion & Law
,
Human Rights Law
Type: Book
Abstract
"In Christian Human Rights, Samuel Moyn asserts that the rise of human rights after World War II was prefigured and inspired by a defense of the dignity of the human person that first arose in Christian churches and religious thought in the years just prior to the outbreak of the war....By focusing on the 1930s and 1940s, Moyn demonstrates how the language of human rights was separated from the secular heritage of the French Revolution and put to use by postwar democracies governed by Christian parties, which reinvented them to impose moral constraints on individuals, support conservative family structures, and preserve existing social hierarchies. The book ends with a provocative chapter that traces contemporary European struggles to assimilate Muslim immigrants to the continent's legacy of Christian human rights"--Jacket.
Samuel Moyn, The Last Utopia: Human Rights in History (Harvard Univ. Press 2010).
Categories:
International, Foreign & Comparative Law
Sub-Categories:
Human Rights Law
Type: Book
Abstract
In this pioneering book, Samuel Moyn elevates that extraordinary transformation to center stage and asks what it reveals about the ideal’s troubled present and uncertain future.
Samuel Moyn, Beyond Liberal Internationalism, 64 Dissent, Winter 2017, at 116.
Categories:
International, Foreign & Comparative Law
,
Government & Politics
Sub-Categories:
Executive Office
,
Politics & Political Theory
,
International Law
,
Foreign Relations
Type: Article
Abstract
The article discusses the issue on the liberal internationalism of the U.S. Democratic Party . Topics discussed include the consequences to foreign policy following the election of U.S. President-elect Donald Trump in the 2016 election, the influence of liberal internationalists to globalization, economic equality, and free markets, and the economic nationalism of President-elect Trump. Also discussed the political freedom in the country, the view of liberal internationalists on the military intervention of a country, and the advancement of international law through the leadership of U.S. President Barack Obama.
Alastair Hunt, Stephanie DeGooyer, Werner Hamacher, & Samuel Moyn, The Right to Have Rights (Verso forthcoming Apr. 2017).
Categories:
Disciplinary Perspectives & Law
,
International, Foreign & Comparative Law
Sub-Categories:
Legal Theory & Philosophy
,
Human Rights Law
Type: Book
Abstract
"Sixty years ago, the political theorist Hannah Arendt, deprived of her German citizenship as a Jew and in exile from her country, observed that before people can enjoy any of the ‘inalienable’ Rights of Man—before there can be any specific rights to education, work, voting, and so on—there must first be such a thing as ‘the right to have rights.’ The concept received little attention at the time, but in our age of refugee crises and extra-state war, the phrase has become the center of a crucial and lively debate. Here five leading thinkers from varied disciplines, including history, law, and politics, discuss the critical issue of the basis of rights and the meaning of radical democratic politics today." --Publisher
Samuel Moyn, Freud’s Discontents, Nation, Nov. 21, 2016, at 25 (reviewing Élisabeth Roudinesco & Catherine Porter, trans., Freud: In His Time and Ours (2016)).
Categories:
Health Care
,
Disciplinary Perspectives & Law
Sub-Categories:
Law & Humanities
,
Psychology & Psychiatry
Type: Article
Samuel Moyn, The End of Human Rights History, 233 Past & Present 307 (2016).
Categories:
International, Foreign & Comparative Law
Sub-Categories:
Human Rights Law
Type: Article
Samuel Moyn, The Relativist Strategem, 17 Politics, Religion & Ideology 276 (2016).
Categories:
Disciplinary Perspectives & Law
Sub-Categories:
Law & Political Theory
,
Legal Theory & Philosophy
,
Religion & Law
Type: Article
Samuel Moyn, Why the War on Terror May Never End, N.Y.T. Book Rev. June 26, 2016, at BR18 (reviewing Mark Danner, Spiral: Trapped in the Forever War (2016)).
Categories:
Government & Politics
,
International, Foreign & Comparative Law
Sub-Categories:
Military, War, & Peace
,
Human Rights Law
Type: News
Samuel Moyn, Book Review, 121 Am. Hist. Rev. 993 (2016)((reviewing Joe Renouard, Human Rights in American Foreign Policy: From the 1960s to the Soviet Collapse (2015)).
Categories:
International, Foreign & Comparative Law
Sub-Categories:
Foreign Relations
,
Human Rights Law
Type: Article
Samuel Moyn, You Must Remember This, 247 New Republic, June 2016, at 80 (reviewing David Rieff, In Praise of Forgetting: Historical Memory and Its Ironies (2016)).
Categories:
Disciplinary Perspectives & Law
,
Government & Politics
Sub-Categories:
Law & Humanities
,
Military, War, & Peace
Type: Article
Samuel Moyn, Religious Freedom and the Fate of Secularism, in Religion, Secularism, and Constitutional Democracy 27 (Jean L. Cohen & Cecille Laborde eds., 2016).
Categories:
Disciplinary Perspectives & Law
,
Discrimination & Civil Rights
Sub-Categories:
Religious Rights
,
Religion & Law
Type: Book
Abstract
Critically engaging with traditional secularism and religious accommodationism, this collection introduces a constitutional secularism that robustly meets contemporary challenges.
Samuel Moyn, America, Christianity, and Beyond, 3 Critical Analysis of Law 195 (2016).
Categories:
Disciplinary Perspectives & Law
Sub-Categories:
Religion & Law
Type: Article
Abstract
This response essay surveys the argument of Anna Su’s new book, Exporting Freedom, before going on to wonder how much America innovated in propagating religious freedom under imperial auspices, and to inquire whether Su ultimately believes that propagation amounts to a specifically Christian project, either for better or for worse.
Samuel Moyn, Book Review, 51 Can. J. Hist. 426 (2016)(reviewing Lisa Lowe, The Intimacies of Four Continents (2015)).
Categories:
Disciplinary Perspectives & Law
,
Discrimination & Civil Rights
,
Labor & Employment
Sub-Categories:
Race & Ethnicity
,
Legal Theory & Philosophy
Type: Article
Samuel Moyn, Coals to Newcastle? On the Anglo-American Reception of Pierre Rosanvallon, 7 Zeitschrift für Politische Theorie (2016).
Categories:
Legal Profession
,
International, Foreign & Comparative Law
Sub-Categories:
Foreign Law
,
Legal History
,
Legal & Political Theory
Type: Article
Abstract
This essay assesses the reasons for the so far minimal reception of Pierre Rosanvallon’s writings in the English-speaking world. Some of the factors suggested include his resistance to a liberal triumphalism that framed the Anglo-American presentation of the larger body of thought to which he contributed and his focus on hexagonal French history, especially in the nineteenth century. The essay closes with a comparison of the reception of his approach with that of Thomas Piketty’s recent bestseller on a similar topic.
Samuel Moyn, History and Political Theory: A Difficult Reunion, 19 Theory & Event, no. 1, 2016.
Categories:
Disciplinary Perspectives & Law
Sub-Categories:
Law & Political Theory
Type: Article
Abstract
This short essay reflects on the relationship between the disciplines of history and political theory. It argues that there exists a divide between them, and that it is difficult to bridge. On one side, historians tend to be empirically sophisticated but theory-averse, according to the motto that “thinking is not their profession.” While theorists, on the other side, have learned from some intellectual historians to take context seriously, the results typically remain an idealist political theory that avoids broader historical contextualization, and thus forestalls disciplinary reunion.
Samuel Moyn, Fantasies of Federalism, 62 Dissent, Winter 2015, at 45 (reviewing Frederick Cooper, Citizenship between Empire and Nation: Remaking France and French Africa, 1945–1960 (2014) & Gary Wilder, Freedom Time: Negritude, Decolonization, and the Future of the World (2015)).
Categories:
Government & Politics
Sub-Categories:
Federalism
,
Politics & Political Theory
Type: Article
Samuel Moyn, Book Review, 15 Contemp. Pol. Theory 485 (2016)(reviewing Robert Lamb, Thomas Paine and the Idea of Human Rights (2015)).
Categories:
Disciplinary Perspectives & Law
,
International, Foreign & Comparative Law
Sub-Categories:
Law & Political Theory
,
Human Rights Law
Type: Article
Samuel Moyn, Civil Liberties and Endless War, 62 Dissent, Fall 2015, at 57.
Categories:
Discrimination & Civil Rights
,
Government & Politics
,
Disciplinary Perspectives & Law
Sub-Categories:
Civil Rights
,
Law & Political Theory
,
Military, War, & Peace
,
Politics & Political Theory
Type: Article
Abstract
An essay is presented on civil libertarianism in the U.S. Topics discussed include the prioritization of civil liberties by liberals in the country since the U.S. September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, reasons why civil libertarians have helped the nation reach national consensus on bringing endless clean war, and the history of civil libertarianism as a leftist response to the persecution of communists and pacifists during and after the First World War.
Samuel Moyn, Book Review, 43 Pol. Theory 416 (2015) (reviewing Alexandre Lefebvre, Human Rights as a Way of Life: On Bergson’s Political Philosophy (2013)).
Categories:
Disciplinary Perspectives & Law
,
International, Foreign & Comparative Law
Sub-Categories:
Law & Political Theory
,
Legal Theory & Philosophy
,
Human Rights Law
Type: Article
Samuel Moyn, Scofflaws in the White House, Wall St. J., Feb. 11, 2015, at A11 (reviewing Jens David Ohlin, The Assault on International Law (2015).
Categories:
International, Foreign & Comparative Law
,
Disciplinary Perspectives & Law
,
Government & Politics
Sub-Categories:
Legal Theory & Philosophy
,
Executive Office
,
International Law
Type: News
Samuel Moyn, New Old Things, 300 Nation, Feb. 9, 2015, at 27 (reviewing Lynn Hunt, Writing History in the Global Era (2014), Jo Guldi & David Armitage, The History Manifesto (2014), & Hayden White, The Practical Past (2014)).
Categories:
Disciplinary Perspectives & Law
Sub-Categories:
Law & Humanities
Type: Article
Abstract
The article focuses on the reliability of books on history and the interpretation of historical events through book authors. Topics include historical revisionism in historical accounts, the reliability of historical facts, and the study of cultural history in 2015. Information is provided on the books "Writing History in the Global Era," by Lynn Hunt, "The History Manifesto," by Jo Guldi and David Armitage, and "The Practical Past," by Hayden White.
Samuel Moyn, Book Review, 33 Law & Hist. Rev. 269 (2015) (reviewing Luke Glanville, Sovereignty and the Responsibility to Protect: A New History (2014)).
Categories:
Government & Politics
Sub-Categories:
Politics & Political Theory
Type: Article
Samuel Moyn, Unfinished Arguments, N.Y. Times, Jan. 18, 2015, at BR17 (reviewing Tony Judt, When the Facts Change: Essays, 1995-2010, Jennifer Homans ed. (2015)).
Categories:
Disciplinary Perspectives & Law
Sub-Categories:
Law & Humanities
,
Law & Political Theory
Type: News
Samuel Moyn, A Powerless Companion: Human Rights in the Age of Neoliberalism, 77 Law & Contemp. Probs. 147 (2015).
Categories:
International, Foreign & Comparative Law
Sub-Categories:
Human Rights Law
Type: Article
Samuel Moyn, Did Christianity Create Liberalism?, Bos. Rev., Jan.- Feb. 2015, at 50 (reviewing Larry Siedentop, Inventing the Individual: The Origins of Western Liberalism (2014)).
Categories:
Disciplinary Perspectives & Law
Sub-Categories:
Law & Political Theory
,
Religion & Law
Type: Article
Samuel Moyn, The Embarrassment of Human Rights, 50 Texas Int’l L.J. F. 1 (2015).
Categories:
International, Foreign & Comparative Law
,
Disciplinary Perspectives & Law
Sub-Categories:
Legal Theory & Philosophy
,
Human Rights Law
Type: Article
Samuel Moyn, Thomas Piketty and the Future of Legal Scholarship, 128 Harv. L. Rev. F. 49 (2014).
Categories:
Disciplinary Perspectives & Law
Sub-Categories:
Law & Economics
,
Law & Political Theory
Type: Article
Samuel Moyn, Book Review, 78 J. Mil. Hist. 1458 (2014) (reviewing Bruno Cabanes, The Great War and the Origins of Humanitarianism, 1918-1924 (2014)).
Categories:
International, Foreign & Comparative Law
,
Government & Politics
Sub-Categories:
Military, War, & Peace
,
International Humanitarian Law
,
Human Rights Law
Type: Article
Samuel Moyn, The Burkean Regicide, 299 Nation, Sept. 1, 2014, at 33.
Categories:
Disciplinary Perspectives & Law
Sub-Categories:
Law & Political Theory
Type: Article
Abstract
An essay is presented on the books "Moral Imagination: Essays," and "The Intellectual Life of Edmund Burke: From the Sublime and the Beautiful to American Independence" by literature professor David Bromwich. Topics include Bromwich's views regarding the administration of U.S. President Barack Obama; Bromwich's evaluation of the views of politician Edmund Burke; and discussions about modern conservatism.
Samuel Moyn, The Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 in the History of Cosmopolitanism, 40 Critical Inquiry 365 (2014).
Categories:
International, Foreign & Comparative Law
Sub-Categories:
Human Rights Law
Type: Article
Rethinking Modern European Intellectual History (Darrin M. McMahon & Samuel Moyn eds., 2014).
Categories:
Disciplinary Perspectives & Law
,
International, Foreign & Comparative Law
Sub-Categories:
Legal Theory & Philosophy
,
European Law
Type: Book
Abstract
This book is a collection of essays by leading practitioners of modern European intellectual history, reflecting on the theoretical and methodological underpinnings of the field.
Samuel Moyn, From Communist to Muslim: European Human Rights, the Cold War, and Religious Liberty, 113 S. Atlantic Q. 63 (2014).
Categories:
Discrimination & Civil Rights
,
International, Foreign & Comparative Law
Sub-Categories:
Religious Rights
,
Human Rights Law
Type: Article
Abstract
This essay contends that contemporary headscarf and related cases in the European Court of Human Rights draw not solely upon the exclusionary legacy of Western secularism but also upon the exclusionary legacy of Western hostility to secularism. One of the avatars of the contemporary Muslim, whose practices are viewed as inimical by the court to democracy’s essentials, is the communist. This argument is pursued through an examination of the history of the middle of the twentieth century, when human rights became a supranational dream and the European human rights architecture was designed.
Samuel Moyn, From Antiwar Politics to Antitorture Politics, in Law and War 154 (Austin Sarat, Lawrence Douglas & Martha Merrill Umphrey eds., 2014).
Categories:
International, Foreign & Comparative Law
Sub-Categories:
Human Rights Law
Type: Book
Samuel Moyn, Human Rights and the Uses of History (Verso 2014).
Categories:
International, Foreign & Comparative Law
Sub-Categories:
Human Rights Law
Type: Book
Abstract
"What are the origins of human rights? This question, rarely asked before the end of the Cold War, has in recent years become a major focus of historical and ideological strife. In this sequence of reflective and critical studies, Samuel Moyn engages with some of the leading interpreters of human rights, thinkers who have been creating a field from scratch without due reflection on the local and temporal contexts of the stories they are telling". --Publisher.
Samuel Moyn, Judith Shklar on the Philosophy of International Criminal Law, 14 Int’l Crim. L. Rev. 717 (2014).
Categories:
Criminal Law & Procedure
,
International, Foreign & Comparative Law
,
Disciplinary Perspectives & Law
Sub-Categories:
Legal Theory & Philosophy
,
International Law
,
Human Rights Law
Type: Article
Abstract
This paper revives Judith Shklar's "Legalism" (Harvard University Press, 1964) with an eye to its relevance to international criminal law today. It examines her general jurisprudential outlook, and critique of various prominent mid-century positions, before turning to her account of the Nuremberg Trials. Showing that her defense of those trials may fail, the paper concludes by suggesting that the book's failure may make it more relevant to the contemporary enterprise of international criminal law rather than less.
The Breakthrough: Human Rights in the 1970s (Jan Eckel & Samuel Moyn eds., 2014).
Categories:
International, Foreign & Comparative Law
Sub-Categories:
Human Rights Law
Type: Book
Abstract
"Between the 1960s and the 1980s, the human rights movement achieved unprecedented global prominence. Amnesty International attained striking visibility with its Campaign Against Torture; Soviet dissidents attracted a worldwide audience for their heroism in facing down a totalitarian state; the Helsinki Accords were signed, incorporating a "third basket" of human rights principles; and the Carter administration formally gave the United States a human rights policy. The Breakthrough is the first collection to examine this decisive era as a whole, tracing key developments in both Western and non-Western engagement with human rights and placing new emphasis on the role of human rights in the international history of the past century."-- book jacket.
Samuel Moyn, The Future of Human Rights, 11 Sur: Int’l J. on Hum. Rts., no. 20, June - Dec. 2014, at 56.
Categories:
International, Foreign & Comparative Law
Sub-Categories:
Human Rights Law
Type: Article
Abstract
This essay summarizes the author's argument for the recent genesis of international human rights and asks what implications for the future that argument has. The essay lays emphasis on the mobilizational origins of current human rights, and insists on the need to reorient them away from the historically specific and politically minimalist compromise between utopianism and realism that human rights current represent.
Samuel Moyn, The Secret History of Constitutional Dignity, 17 Yale Hum. Rts. & Dev. L.J. 39 (2014).
Categories:
International, Foreign & Comparative Law
,
Disciplinary Perspectives & Law
Sub-Categories:
Legal Theory & Philosophy
,
Human Rights Law
Type: Article
Abstract
“Dignity” is suddenly everywhere in law and philosophy, even though it has long been in decline in general usage. In a popular view, this prominence is essentially due to World War II’s aftermath, when in the shadow of genocide the light of human dignity shone forth. More specifically, it is dignitarian constitutionalism that re-founded public law for our time. The concept of dignitarian constitutionalism channeled Immanuel Kant’s pioneering Enlightenment insistence on inherent human worth into the UN Charter (1945), the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), and the German Basic Law (1949), all three of which begin with the dignity of the individual as basic principle. In this conventional wisdom, Germans after the Holocaust went furthest to rethink constitutionalism, and their example of how to defend human dignity was later taken up in South Africa and beyond. Though it took some time, dignity has since proceeded in the last few decades, in tandem with the larger fortunes of international human rights law, to become a crucial watchword, going global in various constitutions and international treaties, and offering judicial guidance for the protection of basic values. Certainly it is true that interest in dignity swarms in legal cases and philosophical discussions today in ways that demand explanation, and the current dispute among judges and commentators about how to interpret dignity provisions is not uninteresting. But is the conventional wisdom about where dignity came from correct in the first place? The notion of dignity was not necessary to constitutionalize rights, either in 1776 in Virginia or in 1789 in France—or again in 1946 in France, when the country not only relit its constitutional torch but drew on the flame of constitutional rights guarded by Central and Eastern Europeans in the 1920s. Conversely, West Germans writing the Basic Law weren’t yet concerned by the Jewish tragedy. And while it is certainly true that Kant occasionally referenced dignity, none of his political disciples have made anything of this fact—and his current philosophical disciples have only started highlighting dignity in the last few years. For that matter, there were no Kantians in Germany of note after World War II (including in the rooms where the Basic Law was prepared and debated), nor really any-where else. And actually, contrary to familiar beliefs, it was not West Ger-many that first constitutionalized dignity as a leading principle anyway.
Global Intellectual History (Samuel Moyn & Andrew Sartori eds., 2013).
Categories:
Disciplinary Perspectives & Law
,
International, Foreign & Comparative Law
Sub-Categories:
Legal Theory & Philosophy
,
International Law
Type: Book
Abstract
Where do ideas fit into historical accounts that take an expansive, global view of human movements and events? Teaching scholars of intellectual history to incorporate transnational perspectives into their work, while also recommending how to confront the challenges and controversies that may arise, this original resource explains the concepts, concerns, practice, and promise of "global intellectual history," featuring essays by leading scholars on various approaches that are taking shape across the discipline. The contributors to Global Intellectual History explore the different ways in which one can think about the production, dissemination, and circulation of "global" ideas and ask whether global intellectual history can indeed produce legitimate narratives. They discuss how intellectuals and ideas fit within current conceptions of global frames and processes of globalization and protoglobalization, and they distinguish between ideas of the global and those of the transnational, identifying what each contributes to intellectual history.
Samuel Moyn, The Secret History of Constitutional Dignity, in Understanding Human Dignity 95 (Christopher McCrudden ed., 2013).
Categories:
Constitutional Law
,
International, Foreign & Comparative Law
Sub-Categories:
Constitutional History
,
Religion
Type: Book
Abstract
n their 1937 constitution, the Irish gave human dignity foundational placement, as a religiously-inspired root concept connected (as in the later West German case of 1949) to the subordination of the otherwise sovereign democratic polity to God, and for many to the moral constraints of his natural law. This essay takes up this neglected but revealing fact. It is critical that dignity came to the world as part of the establishment of an alternative, religious constitutionalism; this newer constitutionalism crystallized precisely in the 1930s when it seemed to many as if secular liberalism had no future. To understand the original meaning of constitutional dignity, in summary, it is necessary to attend to the confusing years just before war and genocide, for it was a response to different circumstances. The most illuminating context for the move to constitutional dignity, it turns out, is not in the shocked conscience “after Auschwitz” but in political Catholicism before it, which remained its dominant framework for decades, when the Holocaust still did not figure in moral consciousness. Focusing on dignity's Irish constitutionalization shows why this matters.
Samuel Moyn, Do Human Rights Treaties Make Enough of a Difference?, in The Cambridge Companion to Human Rights Law 329 (Conor Gearty & Costas Douzinas eds., 2012).
Categories:
International, Foreign & Comparative Law
Sub-Categories:
Human Rights Law
,
Treaties & International Agreements
Type: Book
Abstract
Captures the essence of the multi-layered subject of human rights law in a way that is authoritative, critical and scholarly.
Samuel Moyn, Human Rights, Not So Pure Anymore, N.Y. Times, May 13, 2012, at SR5.
Categories:
International, Foreign & Comparative Law
Sub-Categories:
Human Rights Law
Type: News
Samuel Moyn, Of Deserts and Promised Lands: The Dream of Global Justice, The Nation, Mar. 19, 2012, at 33 (reviewing Jenny S. Martinez, The Slave Trade and the Origins of International Human Rights Law (2012), and Kathryn Sikkink, The Justice Cascade: How Human Rights Prosecutions Are Changing World Politics (2011)).
Categories:
Government & Politics
Sub-Categories:
Courts
Type: Article
The Modernist Imagination: Intellectual History and Critical Theory: Essays in Honor of Martin Jay (Warren Breckman, Peter E. Gordon, A. Dirk Moses, Samuel Moyn & Elliot Neaman eds., 2011).
Categories:
Disciplinary Perspectives & Law
Sub-Categories:
Critical Legal Studies
Type: Book
Samuel Moyn, A Holocaust Controversy: The Treblinka Affair in Postwar France (Brandeis Univ. Press 2005).
Categories:
Disciplinary Perspectives & Law
Type: Book
Abstract
A provocative study of a French Holocaust controversy of the 1960s and the dynamics of postwar memory.
Samuel Moyn, Origins of the Other: Emmanuel Levinas Between Revelation and Ethics (Cornell Univ. Press 2005).
Categories:
Disciplinary Perspectives & Law
Sub-Categories:
Legal Theory & Philosophy
Type: Book
Abstract
"The French-Jewish thinker Emmanuel Levinas (1906-1995) is today remembered as the central moralist of the twentieth century and remains a major presence in the contemporary humanities. In this book, written in lucid and jargon-free prose, Samuel Moyn provides a first and controversial history of the makings of his thought, and especially of his trademark concept of "the other."" "Restoring Levinas to the intellectually rich and combative atmosphere of interwar Europe, Origins of the Other overturns a number of views that have attained almost stereotypical familiarity. In a careful overview of Levinas's career, Moyn documents the philosopher's early allegiance to the great German thinker Martin Heidegger. Showing that Levinas crafted an idiosyncratic vision of Judaism, rather than returning to any traditional source, Moyn makes the startling suggestion that Protestant theology, as it spread across the continent in new forms, may have been the most plausible source of Levinas's core concept. In Origins of the Other, Moyn offers new readings of the work of a host of crucial thinkers, such as Hannah Arendt, Karl Barth, Karl Lowith, Gabriel Marcel, Franz Rosenzweig, Jean-Paul Sartre, and Jean Wahl, who help explain why Levinas's thought evolved as it did."--Jacket.